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Cerebral haemorrhage was related to an increased 'impulse'and as the century progressed, blood pressure began to be measured more frequently and was found to be high in nearly all cases of intracerebral h Haemorrhage.

1840 - 1899

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Medical Terminology

The term ‘cardiovascular disease’ began to replace ‘apoplexy’ within medical records. Possibly influenced by developments in understanding that apoplexies were associated with degenerated arterial walls.

Late 19th Century


By 1892, William Osler was advising that measures should be taken to reduce arterial pressure

after apoplexy and that this was most rapidly and

satisfactorily achieved by venesection

William Osler


 In the 1800s carotid surgery became a more prevalent procedure and reports of successful closures of injuries to the carotid arteries were documented.  The first documented case of successful carotid artery surgery in the United States was performed by Dr. Amos Twitchell in New Hampshire on October 18, 1807. Another milestone came in 1927 when Egas Moniz of Portugal successfully performed cerebral arteriograms for the study of cerebral tumors

Mid 20th  Century

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